Equity-Indexed Annuities Explained
An equity-indexed annuity (EIA), also known as a fixed-index annuity, is a contract between you and an insurance company. You pay premiums in a lump sum or periodically, and the issuer promises* to pay you some amount in the future. The EIA issuer also provides a minimum guaranteed* interest rate on your premiums paid. With an EIA, the interest earnings are tied to the performance of an equity index. An equity index represents the total dollar value of the stocks or bonds of the companies comprising the index. Some well-known indexes include the New York Stock
Exchange Composite Index, the S&P 500, the American Stock Exchange Composite Index, and the Dow Jones Industrial Average. With an EIA, your interest earnings may increase if the market performs well, but if the market performs poorly, a portion of your principal still earns a minimum interest rate, according to the terms of the annuity contract. Note, however, that any return, whether guaranteed or not, is only as good as the insurance company that
offers it. Both the EIA's principal and its earnings are entirely dependent on the insurer's ability to meet its financial obligations. Also, be aware that buyers of EIAs are not directly invested in the index or the equities comprising the
index. The index is merely the instrument used to measure the gain or loss in the market, and that measurement is used to calculate the interest rate. *Annuity guarantees are subject to the claims-paying ability of the annuity issuer.
The first EIAs that were introduced worked very simply; the interest rate was determined by computing the difference between the value of the index to which the annuity was linked on the annuity's issue date and the value of the same index on the annuity's maturity date. If the difference was negative (i.e., the market performed poorly and the value of the index decreased), interest was calculated using the minimum interest rate. If the difference was positive (i.e., the market performed well and the value of the index increased), the interest rate used was a percentage of the difference--but usually not theentire difference.
The participation rate determines how much of the gain in an index will be imparted to your annuity. For example, if the difference (i.e., gain) in the index is 7% and the participation rate is 90%, then the interest rate is 6.3% (90% of 7%). Participation rates of 70% to 90% are typical. Obviously, the higher the participation rate, the higher the potential return. However, EIAs have many features, some of which can offset a lower participation rate or other features. Keep this in mind when considering an EIA or making comparisons between EIAs.
The indexing method is the approach used to measure the change in an index. The original method, which measures index values at the beginning and end of the term, is known as the point-to-point or European method. Still used today, the point-to-point method is the simplest approach, but it fails to consider market fluctuations that occur in between the issue and maturity dates. This can result in unsatisfactory returns if the market declines at the end of the term. Another approach, known as the high-water-mark or look-back method, looks at the value of the index at certain points during the term, such as annual anniversaries. The highest value of these points is
then compared to the date-of-issue value to determine any gain to be credited to the EIA. A third approach, the averaging method, also looks at the value of the index at certain points during the annuity's term, then uses the average value of these points to compute the difference from either the date-of-issue value or the date-of-maturity value. The fourth main indexing method is known as the reset or ratcheting method. With this method, start-of-year values are compared to end-of-year values for each year of the annuity's term. Decreases in the index are ignored, and increases are locked in every year.
How interest is credited to an EIA
With some EIAs, no interest is credited until the end of the term. With others, a percentage of the interest
is vested or credited annually or periodically, which gradually increases as the end of the term nears. Further, some EIAs pay simple interest while others pay compound interest. These features are important not only because they affect the amount of your return, but also because having interest vested or credited to your EIA periodically instead of at the end of the term increases the likelihood that you'll receiveat least some interest if you surrender your EIA
Caution: Many EIAs have surrender charges, whichcan be a percentage of the amount withdrawn or a reduction in the interest rate. Further, withdrawals from tax-deferred annuities before age 59½ may be subject to a 10% penalty
Interest rate cap
Some EIAs put an upper limit on the interest rate the annuity will earn. Say, for example, that an EIA has an interest rate cap of 6%. If the gain in the index is 7% and the participation rate is 90%, the interest rate will be 6%--not 6.3%.
Some EIAs charge an asset fee, also known as spread or margin, which is a percentage that is deducted from the interest rate. The asset fee may replace the participation rate or it may be added to it. For example, if the gain in the index is 7%, the interest rate on an EIA with an asset fee of 2% will be 5%. If there is also a 90% participation rate, the interest rate will be 4.5%.
Tip: All of an EIA's features should be clearly spelled out in the prospectus or other sales literature, and if you purchase the EIA, in your contract as well.
Questions to ask about an EIA
• What is the minimum guaranteed* interest rate?
• What is the participation rate?
• What is the indexing method? How does it work?
• Is there an interest rate cap?
• Is there an asset fee/spread/margin? Is it in addition to or instead of a participation rate?
• What is the term?
• When is interest credited or vested?
• Is interest compounded?
• What are the surrender charges?
• What are the penalties for partial withdrawals?
*Annuity guarantees are subject to the claims-paying ability of the annuity issuer.
Four main indexing methods include
point-to-point or European;
high-water-market or look-back; averaging;
and reset or ratcheting.
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